Contoh Skripsi Mahasiswa Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

An Analysis of Code Mixing in Conversation of the Students at State Junior High School (SMPN) 3 XIII Koto Kampar




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A.    The Background
            Indonesia is one of the developing countries that have many cultures in which it has many tribes in Indonesia such as Javanese, Bataknese, Sundanese, Minangnese, etc. Every tribe in Indonesia has a role to manage the community inside it. Automatically this influences all aspects in Indonesia, one of which is language.
Every region in Indonesia has a language to communicate among people inside it to get certain goal, such as when someone asks the others to do something and in order to keep politeness, for example, Javanese language is used among Javanese people, Bataknese is used among Bataknese, Sundanese is used among Sundanese, etc. Some languages above are called mother tongue.
To communicate with people among their regions, people use the national language. People need to master more than one language to communicate and to interact with others among their region. All of these show that Indonesia is multilingual or heterogeneous society.
In multilingual community, speaker tends to mix from one code to the others, in which this is commonly called as code mixing. According to Nababan in Udoro (2008: 15) code mixing happens when people mix two languages (or more) language in such speech act or discourse without any force to do mixing codes. Trudgill in Udoro (2008: 15) defined “Code Mixing as the process whereby speakers indulge in code switching between languages of such rapidity and density, even within sentences and phrases that are not possible to say at any given time which language they are speaking”. Code mixing can be seen in spoken and written language. Code mixing in the study is in spoken language such as in reality show.
The description above also happens at SMPN 3 XIII Koto Kampar, a school located in XIII Koto Kampar District, Kampar Regency exactly, the school in Kototuo village, which the most of the inhabitants are from Minang, Malay (Ocu) and Javanese
Related to the language usage at school, the students use Indonesian as the main language and English as a study program. In communication, sometimes they take part of English into Indonesian or Indonesian into English. This phenomenon shows that there is a “chaos” of using language.
            Muysken (2000:1) explained that based on intra-sentential, contextual and situational conversation, code mixing is expressively purposing languages that are combined to increase social statue or to keep the speaker’s prestige in the society. While, Jiening (2005:2) specifically added that code-mixing is the embedding of various linguistic units such as affixes (bound morphemes), words (unbound morphemes), phrases and clauses from a co-operative activity of the participants, in order to infer what is intended, must reconcile what they hear with what they understand. Then, code mixing is a situation, which language parts come into another language. In formal situation, it infrequently happens. However, if it happens, it is just caused of no proper expression to the language being used.  Thus, it is necessary to use other language.
            When the code-mixing features appear, the indications are the parts of speeches insert into other language without any separation function from the original one of the language where the parts come from. The parts become one in the language it inserts and generally it has only one function. In the maximal condition, code mixing is convergence linguistic that the parts come from some languages and each part leaves the previous function and supports the function of the language itself.
            Generally, with several motives, code mixing performs in daily life. Professions, social class, economy level, age, and sex and the like are certain motives for people to have code mixing communications as sentenced by Patteda (1987:1). For example, when students explain something to another one, there are parts of language – words, phrases and clauses - that suddenly come from their own language into Indonesian or English into Indonesian.
Such sociolinguistic event can happen in various moments. The support aspect that can be reason to make an observation related the phenomenon. They are the students with different ethnic, social and cultural background. This cannot be separated from the bilingual or multilingual society because each ethnic has its own language. Moreover, they use Indonesian, and they learn English. It means that each of them has three languages namely regional language (mother language) national language, and English. As an education department, SMPN 3 XIII Koto Kampar teaches English subject for the students to increase the students’ ability in English subject, and the school gives additional time for English learning.
Referring to Competency-Based Curriculum (KBK) and Education Curriculum Unit Level (KTSP) mention that the English subject is one of the important subjects to be learned in Junior High School. Every student at SMPN 3 XIII Koto Kampar is obligated to take English subject. In average, all classes have twice a week for studying English and the teachers have qualified and professional in teaching, they used textbook and teaching methods according to the competency-based curriculum and Education Curriculum Unit Level.
The goal is all students can improve their ability more than the students from other schools. However, with or without English, SMPN 3 XIII Koto Kampar is a multilingual community. Wikipedia (2003) noted the phenomenon regarding to speaker who uses two or more languages, a community of speakers where two or more languages are used, or between speakers of different languages. Then the community has potential to have multilingual/ bilingual languages.
The real event in the student’s daily life is that they have lack vocabulary and are shy when they want to speak English, and fear to make mistakes in their conversation. Therefore, code mixing is one of the ways for the students to make easy and familiarize use English in their conversation.
The fact happens at school environment is really interesting and prospective to be observed. This triggers the writer to conduct a research toward this phenomenon through one aspect – intra-sentential research. Here are several symptoms dealing with this research, as follows:
1.      Some of the students still mix Indonesia language in English in their conversation.
2.      Some of the students seldom speak English fully in their conversation.
3.      Some of the students use code mixing in their English conversation.
Based on these symptoms, the writer is interested in carrying out a research entitled “An Analysis of Code Mixing in Conversation of the Students at State Junior High School (SMPN) 3 XIII Koto Kampar”.
B.     The Problem
1.     The Identification of the Problem
From the described phenomenon above, there are three main variants of code mixing related to the parts of language coming into one language then the writer identifies the problem. They are follows:
1.        Why do some of the students keep silent when they find some difficult words?
2.        Why do some of the students seldom speak English in their conversation?
3.        Why do some of the students use code mixing in their English conversation?

2.      Limitation of the Problems
Typology of code mixing is really a large study. The points influencing the code mixing are very general such as word, phrase, clause, and random language parts. Moreover, the students generally use Indonesian. Then, to make the problem scope smaller, the writer focuses the research on:
1.    The Analysis of code mixing in conversation of the students at State Junior High School (SMPN) 3 XIII Koto Kampar.
2.    The Types of Code Mixing found in the students’ conversation

3.      The Formulation of the Problems
The formulations of the research are formulated into the following research questions, as follows:
1.    How is an analysis of code mixing in conversation of the students at State Junior High School (SMPN) 3 XIII Koto Kampar?
2.    What are the types of Code Mixing found in the student’s conversation?

C.    The Reason of Choosing the Title
The writer is interested in doing the research is because some consideration as mentioned in the following points:
1.      This study is relevant with the writer as a student of English Education department.
2.      This study can be conducted because the time and place of the study are feasible for writer.
D.    The Objectives and the Significance of the Research.

1.      The Objectives of the Research

This study has general objectives, they are as follows:
1.       To find out the analysis of code mixing in conversation of the students at State Junior High School (SMPN) 3 XIII Koto Kampar
2.       To find out the types of code mixing which found in students’ conversation
Moreover, this research has the special objectives as pointed in the following points, as follows:
1.        As reference for those who are interested in sociolinguistic phenomena.
2.        As reference for the next researchers in the field of code-mixing study.
3.        As inputs for English teacher in SMPN 3 XIII Koto Kampar.
4.        As the partial requirement for undergraduate program at Education and Teacher Training Faculty of UIN SUSKA RIAU.
      2.  The Significance of the Study.
The writer hopes that this study could give contribution and information for the English teachers of SMPN 3 XIII Koto Kampar, especially concerning with ability of the students in applying code mixing in their conversation when they find some problems. By comprehending the ability of the students, the teacher is also expected to find out the ways to solve problem. Then, it is to enlarge or expand the writer’s knowledge.
E.     The Definition of Term
1.  Type
Type is a class or group of people or things that share particular qualities or features and are part of a larger group.
2.  Code Mixing
Muysken (2001:1) said that Code mixing is expressively purposing languages that are combined to increase social statue or to keep the speaker’s prestige in the society



CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND OPERASIONAL CONCEPT


A.    Theoretical Framework
If one asks when the language exists in the world, of course, the possible answer is the language has existed in the world since the human beings born in the world, particularly from Adam prophet until present humans. It means that language is important for human beings. There is human, there is language. That is actually the fact. Therefore, between human and language are tightly united.
There are many fascinating and odd phenomena occurring in the society, they happen uncontrolled by the language and linguistic itself. This makes the language – as a science – can be separated into different side. They are internal and external aspects. Then, sociolinguistic is different from many other branches of linguistic field in which it studies the internal aspects of language such as syntax, morphology, phonology, semantic and so forth. It studies the language through the relationship of language and society, the united relationship between the language and the users of language itself.
Wikipedia (2002) noted the description of sociolinguistic as the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context; on the way language is used. Hence, Suwito in Ratna (2007:56) stated that the language variation consists of idiolect, dialectal, language manner, and level. The language variation is possible thing in social domain of small
society, even in individual language usage. The factors influencing the language variation are the arranging of local society formation, and language used as normal activity between society members. The external factors influencing are speaker’s factor, social, and situational.
Here is the example, a sociolinguist might determine through study of social attitudes that Black English Vernacular would not be considered appropriate language use in a business or professional setting. He or she might also study grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and other aspects and it is much as a dialectologist would study the same or regional dialect. It means that the study of language variation is concerned with social constraints determining language in its contextual environment. Code switching and code mixing are the terms given to the use of different varieties of language in different social situation.
Finally, while the study of sociolinguistic is very broad, there are a few fundamental concepts on which most sociolinguistic inquiries. It attempts to explain why the fact is not how the case is. These two approaches, although it is different, but it completes each other in practice.
1.      Code Mixing
The ways of communicating among the people are various due to the supporting situations. There are two general ways of people to have communication. They are written and spoken way. Written way uses some equipments to transcribe the language, word by word into transcription such as pen, paper, etc, and spoken one uses speech organ formed sounds and directly transformed. Although the way is different but the goal is just the same – make something known.
Background the happening of code mixing can be classified in two, that is ( 1) attitude ( type attitudinal): attitude background of speaker, and ( 2) Language ( linguistics of type): background limitation of Language, so that there is reason role identify, manner identify, and desire to explain or interpret.
Thereby code mixing happened caused interrelationship among role of speaker, Language form, and Language function. Some of code mixing form, that is (1) insertion of word, (2) insertion of phrase, (3) insertion of clause, (4) insertion of idiom or expression, and (5) insertion of form of baster ( alliance forming of genuine and foreign language). Sujana (2009:11)
In relation to the language and social groups, code mixing is a phenomenon of bilingual or multilingual society. Bilingual or multilingual speakers as involved persons in using two or more languages are involved with two or more cultures, and of course, it is not separated from the result of the language use. The using of two or more languages, personal or social group, commonly named bilingualism or multilingualism. The result can be mentioned as “chaos” of the language system.
Moreover, it is also possible for the bilingual or multilingual people to use more than one code or language in a communication. One of the language phenomena especially in the study of bilingualism problem is called code mixing. Wardhaugh in Henie (2008: 2) stated that code mixing occurs when speakers use both languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance. Deuchar (2005: 2) differed the terms that code switching is changing languages between sentences and code mixing is changing languages within a sentence.
Whereas Patteda (1987:1) explained this, term in Indonesian that “Campur kode adalah penggunaan bahasa yang lebih dari satu bahasa yang dengan sengaja atau tidak sengaja dipadukan untuk menaikan status social atau menjaga gengsi penuturnya”. (Code mixing is defined as expressively combined more than one language to increase social status or to keep the speaker’s prestige).
According to Nababan in Udoro (2008:15) code mixing happens when people mix two languages (or more) languages in such speech act or discourse without any force to do mixing codes. Trudgill in Udoro  (2008:15) defined “Code Mixing is as the process whereby speakers indulge in code switching between languages of such rapidity and density, even within sentences and phrases that are not possible to say at any given time which language they are speaking”. 
Code-mixing serves as a ‘strategy of neutrality’ (Scotton, 1976) in order to neutralize the two impressions; one of showing off and the other of being anglicized. They develop the understanding that in order to meet complex communicative demands and to communicate fluently, effectively and successfully, they must use this characteristic of language. So, they don’t consider it harmful and start to exploit this feature as a communicative strategy. They rather consider it ‘a communicative resource’ (Adendorf, 1996).
Additionally, in code mixing situation, to keep the speaker’s prestige can be mentioned, because there are no proper words to express the speaker’s mean. Mehmet Celik (La Trobe University, Australia. Email: mcelik63@hotmail.com) said that Code-mixing involves the use of an Language 1 word in an Language 2 utterance- a common occurrence in bilingual or immigrant communities.
Different researchers have tried to define the term ‘code’, ‘code-mixing’ (Ayeomoni, 2006; Belly, 1976; Hymes, 1974; Kachru, 1983; Yee H, 2000). Some of the definitions are:
1.      Code will be taken as a verbal component that can be as small as a morpheme or as comprehensive and complex as the entire system of language (Ayeomoni, 2006).
2.      Code-mixing refers to the transfer of linguistic units from one language into another and the units may be morphemes, words, phrases, clauses or sentences (Kachru, 1983).
3.      Code-mixing is an admixture of linguistic elements of two or more languages system in the same utterances at various levels (Yee Ho, 2000).
4.      Code-mixing is the use of two or more linguistic varieties in the same conversation or interaction. (Scotton and Ury, 1977)
5.      Code-mixing is the alternate use of two languages in a single discourse . (Paplock)


2.      Kinds of Code Mixing
According to Sujana and Sri Hartati (2009:11) Code Mixing divided in two kinds;
a.       Inner Code Mixing is that stemming from original language with all variation.
b.      Outer Code Mixing is that stemming from foreign language.
3.      Types of Code Mixing
Code mixing has some form; 1) word insertion (in fixation), 2) phrase insertion, 3) clause insertion, 4) expression/ idiom insertion, and 5) baster insertion (combining of original and foreign language).
 Muysken (2000:1) explained more that code mixing is typically divided into three main types – insertion (word or phrase), alternation (clause) and congruent lexicalization (dialect)- and the most common occurrence of code mixing variants in society is insertional code mixing. Muysken in Daucher (2005:609) suggested that there are three main patterns of intra-sentential code mixing which may be found in bilingual speech community – insertion, alternation, and congruent lexicalization. In another hand, the types of code mixing are:
1.      Insertional Code Mixing
2.      Alternation code mixing
3.      Congruent lexicalization code mixing

The explanations are:
a)        Insertion of material (lexical items or entire constituents) from one language into a structure of the other language. Here is the ` examples:
“jangan suka nge-judge gitu dong. orang kan beda-beda" (note that "judge" is the English word inserted in the Indonesian utterance).

1      English into Indonesia by Nina (http://just-drop by.blogspot.com/2008/03/code-switching-and-code-mixing.html)

b)        Alternation between structures from languages.
Swahili-English by Poplack in Douchar (2005:610) examples:
Why make Carol sentarse atrĂ¡s pa’ que everybody has to move pa’ que se salga?  (Why make Carol sit in the back so that everybody has to move for her to get out?)
Teacher       :     What’s your activities at home?
Ratna            :     Activities, e… saya sekarang kan kost pak. Disana gak comfort gitu. No time for study, soalnya pulang sekolah gak bisa istirahat. Banyak kerjaan. Mau tiduran aja ga bisa. Segen sama yang punya rumah.
Teacher       :     Everyday?
Ratna            :     Iya, everyday. Malemnya when I sleepy ya ga bisa belajar. Planning-nya sih mau pindah gitu. Mungkin next month, sir.
c)        Congruent lexicalization of material from different lexical inventories into a shared grammatical structure.
Example by B. Van Den Bogaerde & A.E. Baker (2006:3) in Netherlands language.
Gee mi een kiss
(Give me a kiss)
Van Den Bogaerde & A.E. Baker (2006:3) the last type, congruent lexicalization, is most often present in mixing between dialects and between languages, which are close to each other in structure.
4.      Analysis of Type Code Mixing
From the processes presented above, it can be analyzed that:
a)         Insertion is the constraint in the terms of structural properties of some base or matrix structure. The process of code mixing is conceived as something skin to borrowing ant the insertion of an alien lexical or phrasal category into a given structure. The difference is simply the size and type of element inserted – noun, adjective, verb, and the like.
b)        Alternation is the constraint of mixing in terms of compatibility or equivalence of the languages involved at the mix point, and clause.
c)         Congruent lexicalization is the influence of dialect within language use.
The processes above happen inside a sentence. So, there is a changing in one sentence performed by speaker. Deuchar (2005:609-611) added that the patterns of code mixing types can be figured as the following Matrix Language Frame (MLF):

Language A                 Language B                              Language A

Matrix b is inserted into structure of other language

a
b
a
1. Insertion



Matrix b is the lexical items of language. B that are inserted into structure of language A. Lexical items of language is words (noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, or phrase).
 








Language A                             Language B

Structure alternates in two languages

a
b
2. Alternation



Clause of language A is inserted into language B. This situation seems to be code switching because the language structure changes into another language. But the alternation of code mixing just happens in one sentence. 
 




Language A/ Language B

Lexical inventories (dialect) mix each other randomly


3. Congruent lexicalization
a
b
b
a
It is almost no changing of any words, phrases or clauses. The language structure is used originally. However, the changing happens inside the dialect of the language.
 








Alexandra Munch (2005:1) gave a description of code mixing in another
figure to explain how code mixing occurs in communication. They are as follows:
Language A
Language B
Word/phrase
1. Word or phrasal insertion




Language A
Clause of Language A + B
Language B
2. Clausal alternation





3. Dialect changing
Language A
Language B
 






B.     Relevant Research
There are some relevant researches due to this research, in terms of students’ use code mixing and an analysis of typical code mixing. Dealing with this research, the writer takes some relevant researches, which have been investigated. The first is Kurniawati (2005) in her research entitled “A Linguistic Study on Indonesian – English Code Mixing Used in HAI Magazine”. She discussed the morphological and syntactic form of code mixing and the meaning of the form of code mixing in the HAI magazine. She found the kinds of code mixing. There were words (84 data), which were classified into noun (84 data), pronouns (15 data), verbs (3data), adverbs (2 data), adjectives (14 data), conjunctions (2 data), reduplications (1 datum), and hybrids (10 data). The forms belonging to syntactic form were phrase and clause (10 data).
The second is the research related to the study of code mixing had been conducted by Subekti (2006) entitled “An Analysis of Indonesian English Code Mixing Used in Tempo Magazine”. She analyzed the forms of code mixing, the levels of writing and factors that can cause code mixing. The result of her analysis showed that there were 50 words, 12 phrases, and 3 idioms. The types of code mixing were outer code mixing in English. The reasons of using the code were need filling motive, prestige filling motive, and other reasons such as to complain,
 to give respect, etc. (Bagus Udoro) http://etd.eprints.ums.ac.id/2173/1/A320040094.pdf

C.    The Operational Concept.
Operational concept is the main element to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpreting in scientific study/research. Therefore, a concept is still operated in an abstract form in a research plan which is should be interpreted into particular words in order to make them easy to be measured.
      Thus, the operational concept of this study can be seen in the following indicators:
1.      The students use code mixing in their conversation.
1). Insertion of word, 2). Insertion of phrase, 3). Insertion of clause, 4). Insertion of Idiom or Expression, and 5). Insertion of form of baster (alliance forming of genuine and foreign language).
2.      The students use types of code mixing in their conversation.
1). Insertion code mixing, 2). Alternation code mixing, and
3). Lexicalization code mixing in their conversation.






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